Ivermectin

Ivermectin

Ivermectin

Ivermectin: A Potent Antiparasitic with Promising Cancer-Fighting Treatment

Ivermectin, a powerful antiparasitic agent, has recently garnered attention for its potential to combat various types of cancer. Extensive laboratory research on a wide range of cancers has shown promising results, potentially outperforming both Fenbendazole and Mebendazole in treating lymphoma, leukemia, and solid tumors such as ovarian and triple-negative breast cancer, among others. As an antiparasitic drug with minimal side effects, Ivermectin has been found to inhibit numerous cancer pathways across various cancer types, enhance drug effectiveness, reduce drug resistance, and potentially inhibit cancer stem cells.

The well-established antiparasitic drug, Ivermectin (IVM), is commonly used to treat diseases such as scabies, river blindness, and elephantiasis. The discovery of Ivermectin by Satoshi Omura (Japan) and William C. Campbell (Ireland) earned them the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Initially approved for veterinary purposes (acariasis, heartworm), the FDA approved Ivermectin for human use as early as 1978. As a member of the Avermectin family, it boasts an excellent safety record and few side effects.

Ivermectin's Role in Cancer Treatment

A growing body of research highlights Ivermectin's significant anticancer effects. Key findings from various studies include:

  • Anti-angiogenic properties, which hinder the development of blood supplies to tumors
  • Inhibition of cancer cell proliferation and metastasis
  • Regulation of multiple signaling pathways through AMPK and PAK-1 kinase
  • Induction of programmed cell death, apoptosis, and autophagy
  • Inhibition of cancer stem cells
  • Enhancement of the immune system
  • Reversal of drug resistance across a wide range of drugs

In summary, Ivermectin's proven antiparasitic properties, combined with its promising cancer-fighting potential, make it a valuable candidate for further research and clinical application. As we continue to explore the full extent of Ivermectin's capabilities, there is hope for its future role in improving cancer treatment outcomes.

Ivermectin in Oncology: The Science

In the laboratory, Ivermectin has been shown to kill cancer cells of many types, including breast, ovarian, prostate, colorectal, brain, renal, leukemia, AML, hepatocellular carcinoma, and lung cancer, among others. However, many substances have been shown to kill cancer cells in the laboratory. So, what makes Ivermectin more relevant?

Ivermectin stands out because it acts as a strong ionophore and upregulates chloride channels. It is known to increase the activity of glutamate-chloride ion channels, increasing the influx of chloride ions inside cells, and consequently blocking signal transmission between neurons and muscles. This is the primary mechanism responsible for its antiparasitic effects. At higher concentrations, Ivermectin also stimulates chloride channels in mammals.

While Ivermectin works through multiple anti-cancer mechanisms, it is believed that its interference with ion dynamics across cellular membranes is the most crucial property responsible for its anti-cancer effects. This is because the overactivity of cancer cells compared to normal cells requires an intense movement of ions such as potassium and chloride.

Nevertheless, academic research has indicated that Ivermectin can address many more mechanisms that can lead to tumor suppression. Whether all or some of these mechanisms have at their base its ionophore activity remains to be seen. However, the list of anti-cancer mechanisms related to Ivermectin is outstanding:

  • Can trigger "Immunogenic Cancer Cell Death," a form of cancer cell death that "wakes up" the immune system and initiates an immune response. As a result, Ivermectin has been proposed as a great combination with immune therapies such as checkpoint inhibitors.
  • Downregulates glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).
  • Potentiates the activity of anti-androgen receptor and anti-EGFR drugs.
  • Inhibits cancer stem-like cells (CSC).
  • Inhibits angiogenesis.
  • Inhibits metastasis.
  • Acts as a WNT pathway inhibitor.
  • Increases reactive oxygen species generation, which is functionally important for Ivermectin-induced cell death.
  • Acts as a microtubule inhibitor.
  • Inhibits multi-drug resistance pumps.
  • At a higher dose, Ivermectin can inactivate the protein kinase PAK1 and block the PAK1-dependent growth – PAK1 is critical for cytoskeleton reorganization and nuclear signaling. PAK-1 kinase is required for the growth of more than 70% of human cancers. This activity is similar to caffeic acid from propolis.
  • Nebulized Ivermectin has also been proposed for direct delivery to the lungs, which could be particularly beneficial for patients with lung tumors.

This impressive list of activities explains why Ivermectin has such a vast anti-cancer potential. As research continues to unravel the full extent of Ivermectin's capabilities, it remains a promising candidate for further investigation and clinical application in cancer treatment.

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